NJMH is working as Deputy Conservator of Forests in Balochistan Forest & Wildlife Department (BFWD). He is the CEO of Tech Urdu (techurdu.net) Forestrypedia (forestrypedia.com), Majestic Pakistan (majesticpakistan.pk), All Pak Notifications (allpaknotifications.com), Essayspedia, etc & their YouTube Channels). He is an Environmentalist, Blogger, YouTuber, Developer & Vlogger.
MANAGEMENT OF DEODAR
Ø Local Name: Deodar, Diar
Ø Trade Name: Himalayan Cedar, Deodar
Ø Scientific Name: Cedrus deodara
1. It occurs between 4500-10,000 feet Elevation.
2. It is found in AJK, Dir, Swat, Chitral, Tirah, Murree hills, Kaghan, Naran, Hazara Galiat, Shogran.
3. The crown extends to the grounds with the branches forming a conical shape.
4. The leaves are three, sided 2.5 to 4 cm long.
5. The bark is grayish or reddish-brown.
6. Cone Ripen in late October to November.
7. Good seed years occur once in three years.
8. Cones are collected end September to early October.
9. Seed is oily. It can not be stored for long time. It is best to sow fresh seeds before snowfall.
10. There are two winged seed beneath each cone scale.
11. Seed is shed in November.
12. A tolerant tree that will grow fairly well in shade, requiring full sunlight with age.
13. Seed viability is low.
14. It grows slow. M.A.I. of 6 to 9 m3/ha/year has recorded.
15. The wood is high demand resulting in over cutting.
16. On average 7900/kg seed weight.
17. Germinative capacity is 65-80% and plant percent 58.
18. Deodar is light-demander; can tolerant side-shade in early stage.
19. It is sensitive to drought in seedling stage.
20. It is frost resistant, wind-firm, liable to snow damage.
21. Uncontrolled fire and grazing are very injurious.
22. Deodar oil is used for ulcers and skin Eruption.
o SILVICULTURE SYSTEM
· Deodar Forests are worked under selection system or irregular shelterwood system or more often under uniform system or its modification with Concentrated Regeneration on a rotation of 120 to 150 years and regeneration periodic is 30 years.
· Rotation: 120 years
· Regeneration: 30 Years
o PERIODIC BLOCK
The forest is divided into 4 Periodic Blocks as under:-
Periodic Block I, II, III, IV.
· Periodic Block I:
Ø Comprising a predominantly mature crop. This is demarcated into two blocks:
(a) One which has undergone seedling felling but Regeneration is yet to be established.
(b) Other in which seeding fellings are to be carried out.
· Periodic Block II: Comprising mainly middle aged to mature crop.
· Periodic Block III: Comprising mainly a young to middle-aged crop.
· Periodic Block IV: Comprising of a predominately young crop.
o FELLINGS IN PERIODIC BLOCKS I AREAS
The pattern of carrying out fellings in Periodic Block I trees is as follows:
1. The seed bears should be of the 60 to 70 cm diameter class.
2. The average distance between two seed bears should be 15 mts and about 30 to 35 seed bearers per Hectare should be retained.
3. In case of a mixed crop, Deodar should be preferred to other species for retention as seed bearers.
4. More trees should be retained on precipitous, broken ground and in areas liable to severe Erosion.
5. Compact groups of vigorously growing pole crop having a diameter up to 30 cms and density not less than 0.7 should be retained as a part of the future crop.
6. Thinnings are to be carried out in these groups.
7. Final fellings are done only when the young crop is beyond injury.
o TREATMENT OF FELLED PERIODIC BLOCK I AREAS
The following scheme of operations is followed for such areas:
i. A detailed regeneration survey is carried out.
ii. All poles, saplings, seedlings having a suppressed and stunted growth and poor density (less than 0.5) and less than 0.25 hectares in areas are removed.
iii. Undesirable species of the understorey which is hampering the growth of Deodar seedlings is removed.
iv. Broad-leaved species may be encouraged in moist locations.
o SUBSIDIARY SILVICULTURAL OPERATIONS IN PERIODIC BLOCK I AREAS
These comprise of:
(a) Dead, damaged and diseased trees are removed, so as to reduce competition.
(b) The felling debris is suitably disposed of so that there is a clear bed.
(c) Tree which are not valuable, less valuable and interfering with the growth of Deodar are removed to reduce competition.
(d) Shrub cutting is done in areas where it is fairly dense.
Ø Regeneration in Periodic Block I is obtained Naturally and Artificial means.
· Artificial Regeneration:
i. About 1*1/2 to 2*1/2 year old deodar seedlings raised in the nursery are planted during monsoon or winter rains.
ii. Pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size are dug, well in advance of the planting.
iii. The spacing adopted varies from 2.5 mt x 2.5 mt or 3 mt x 3 mt.
· Light thinnings are carried out in Periodic Block III & Periodic Block IV as per requirement if needed.
- Drought a Ticking Time Bomb – The Current Scenerio in Pakistan
- Management of Fir and Spruce (Abies pindrow and Picea smithiana) – Species Management