Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification. The word finds its roots in the Greek τάξις, taxis (meaning ‘order’, ‘arrangement’) and νόμος, nomos (‘law’ or ‘science’). The word Taxonomy was first used by the great Botanist A.P.De. Condolle in 1813.
The word can be defined as, “the science of classifying plants, animals, and microorganisms into increasingly broader categories based on shared features.”
Traditionally, organisms were grouped by physical resemblances, but in recent times other criteria such as genetic matching have also been used.
More precisely Plant Taxonomy can be defined as, “Taxonomy is that branch of biology which deals with the description, identification, classification, and naming of plants according to their resemblances and differences.”
SCOPE OF TAXONOMY:
The scope of taxonomy may be elaborated in the following points:
- In establishing the Phylogenetic relationship that exists naturally b/w many groups of plants
- Using nomenclature principles and rules all plants are named.
- It has a great value in Forestry because all forest trees have been named and classified.
- It has wide importance in Agriculture, Horticulture, etc
- To study ecology, the knowledge of taxonomy / systematic botany became essential, plant ecologist must be aware of the names of plants and their relationship to habitat and environment.
OBJECTIVES OR AIMS OF TAXONOMY:
Following are the main objectives of Taxonomy:
- Inventory of world’s fauna
- To provide a method for identification and communication
- To produce a coherent and universal system of classification
- To demonstrate the evolutionary implications of plant diversity
- To provide single Latin “Scientific name” for every group of plants in the world, both living and extinct.
- To arrange plants in such a way as to give us an idea about the sequence of their evolution from simpler, earlier and more primitive type to more complexes, more recent, more advanced type in different periods of history.
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