What is seed?
‘’It is ripened ovary that consists of an embryo, stored food supply and having a protective cornering.’’
Collection of Seed
Obtaining and maintaining supplies of good seed depends upon an understanding of the best techniques for collecting, extraction and storing seed and material factors which influence their viability.
Moreover, an adequate supply of good quality seed is a prerequisite for successful artificial regeneration.
The seed of important species like Shisham can be collected locally any year but the problem is with the infrequent occurrence of good seed year in case of conifers i.e. once 3 or 4 years in silver Fir.
2. Agencies for collecting of Seed
Seed can be collected from the following agencies:
1. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar
2. Pakistan Forestry Research Institute, Gadwall, Faisalabad
3. From the Responsible Contractors
4. From the Forest Guards
3. Method of collecting seed
Seed can be collected by applying different methods i.e. collection from the standing trees.
Following are the important methods by which one can collect the seeds from the standing trees.
3.1. By climbing up the trees
3.2. Collection of seed from Natural Fall
3.3. Collection in the crown
3.4. Seed vehicles
3.5. Portable ladders
3.6. Manual collection
3.7. Pole implements
3.8. Throwing Rope with a weighted end
3.9. Flexible Saw
3.11. Collecting seed from felled trees
3.12. Bagging and labeling
4. Characteristics of the Plus Tree
Plus tree is generally phenotypically superior tree.
• Superior trees should be enough to produce good quality seeds.
• Should be better than an average with rapid growth and volume
• Stem, farm, and shape should be straight
• Plus tree should have apical dominance characteristics
• It should have no evidence of disease, insects, and fungal attack
• There should have well developed and good shaped crown and stem.
• It should have maximum branches equally well, developed on all the sites.
• Forking should be considered as the defect while selecting a plus tree.
5. Seed extraction and cleaning
Seed collection from the field is rarely fit for immediate storage. Drying extraction from the pods (in case of leguminous) and further cleaning are required.
After collection and before storage the seed collected must be inspected to determine it conditions. In case of pods, it becomes more expeditious. Moist and fomenting pods must be spread out to dry and also require treatment with fungicide to avoid further fermentation.
Natural Dying: the seeds are spread in a thin layer on beds over the ground. The layer of the seed is constantly distributed so as to permit the lower layers to dry. The time required for natural drying depends on a number of factors including species, the degree of maturity of the seed and weather conditions.
Seed having high moisture contents are likely to forgo. In this case, the seed should be dried it moderate temperature with good ventilation.
Artificial drying: the rapid, artificial drying of seed is especially useful during rainy or humid weather. A temperature is 450C for a maximum period of 48-72 hours. In species where a large proportion of seed remains either enclosed in the pods e.g. Acacia nilotica, Acacia aneura.
6. Extraction of seed
Seeds of several types require no extraction, except removal from chaff or thrash. There are several methods of extracting seeds. Namely:
• By rolling seeds in the hands
• By beating
• By winnowing
• By sousing
• By watering
• By floatation
7. Types of equipment Required For Seed Collection
• Stationary e.g. notebook, recording forms, pens, and pencils
• Camera and accessories.
• Markers (of different colors)
• Tree measuring instruments e.g. diameter tape, height measuring instruments and length measuring tape.
• Hand lens
• Seed bags
• Seed collecting instruments, saws, strings, ropes, ladders, etc
• Safety gear, e.g. steel capped boots, leather gloves, safety helmet, safety belts
• Waterproof tags for labeling each lot
• Tags for botanical specimens
• Plant press for botanical specimens
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