The previous sections have underscored the complexity of the REDD+ implementation in Pakistan, particularly given the peculiar and yet complex legal and institutional system in Pakistan. This section focusses on providing a Strategic Framework for REDD+ in Pakistan based on the analysis of drivers, legal and institutional ecosystems and, with the participation of the stakeholders at the national and provincial level.
The complexity of REDD+ cannot be addressed with a narrow or project-based approach, but rather with a broad understanding of all the conditions and particularities that are involved in land use and forests ecosystems. This section provides the framework from which the Strategy will work, considering the multiple drivers of deforestation and forest degradation and their underlying causes, as a response to address them, but also to reinforce successful practices currently occurring in the country.
The National REDD+ Strategy is based and aligned in the current state of the legal, institutional and policy framework (detailed in the previous chapter), which provides the foundation for all the activities to be performed. There are also Guiding Principles that give direction to the Strategy. Between these boundaries, the Vision and the Strategic Objectives were developed for the current process, being consolidated with specific activities to perform in the field to address the direct causes of deforestation and forest degradation, known as Strategy Options (described in the next chapter). The Strategy Options require a wide set of actions to address the underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation as enabling conditions, and these are integrated into the Implementation Framework. As a culmination of the strategic framework, a Roadmap for Implementation presents the next steps for implementing the Strategy.
Strategic Framework for REDD+ in Pakistan
Guiding Principles, The National REDD+ Strategy, and its development is based on a set of guiding principles that align with the vision. The Guiding Principles developed were based on stakeholder consultations with numerous government forest officials, guidance from several NGOs working specifically on REDD+, and donors that have been supporting Pakistan’s REDD+ efforts. The consultation process —A summary). The Guiding Principles also reflect the country’s compromise with the UNFCCC decisions regarding social and environmental safeguards. These Guiding Principles are common to all provinces and ensure coherence between the objectives and vision of the National REDD+ Strategy and its provincial actions.
Vision and Objectives The ultimate goal of a National REDD+ Strategy is the effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions coming from deforestation and forest degradation, the conservation and enhancement of carbon stocks, and the promotion of Sustainable Forest Management. To achieve such a goal and the multiple associated benefits,including adaptation to climate change, efforts should be circumscribed in a broad policy framework, which at the same time is integral and has a long-term scope.
In this sense, the National Vision for REDD+ is oriented to incorporate these characteristics. Vision 2025 (Ministry of Planning Development & Reform, 2014) is a document that provides the overall vision for Pakistan for the coming decade. Pakistan’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) is also based on Vision 2025. Vision 2025 sets out important elements that prioritize people, inclusive growth, governance, water, energy, and food. lt also recognizes the high priorities of developing a knowledge economy and regional connectivity and of having the private sector participation in the economy. In this sense, there is a strong alignment between Pakistan’s Vision 2025, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (Ministry of Planning Development & Reform, 2014).
Pakistan’s forests can play an important part in the country’s ability to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Additionally, it is the social values that forests have historically provided to its people that create the need to craft a vision that acknowledges the potential of both forests and people. As Pakistan has been working on REDD+ readiness for several years, different stakeholders have been discussing views and expectations for the implementation, process, and results arising from REDD+. Pakistan’s vision for forests and people is a culmination of extensive consultations that seek to align the national REDD+ vision with the vision of Pakistan. As a result, the national REDD+ vision is based on Vision 2025 and the SDGs, in which relevant stakeholders should play a vital role in the target and goal setting of the national REDD+ Strategy.
[ National Vision for REDD+ on a sustainable basis.
Forests in Pakistan provide ecosystem services and livelihood support]
This Vision considers forests ecosystems as a public good and as a source of multiple benefits and development. With this Vision, Pakistan contributes to the global objective of mitigating climate change, and also ensures resilience for the ecosystems and the population.
To achieve the National Vision for REDD+, several aspects and sectors need to be addressed. The Strategic Objectives were thus designed to deal with the various topics expressed in the vision. These Strategic Objectives reflect the concerns, expectations, and needs of different stakeholders and also the identified drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. They also take into account the current policy and legal framework, including the decision to take action on the five activities main activities from REDD+, and in doing so, achieving in multiple parallel benefits, including adaptation to climate change.
With this Verson and Strategic Objectives, Pakistan embraces its commitment to the global community to take action to implement the five activities. of REDD+
1. Reducing emissions from deforestation
2. Reducing emissions from forest degradation
3. Conservation of forest carbon stocks
4. Sustainable management of forests
5. Enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
In order to achieve these fire commitments, the country will need to make efforts directed at ensuring r coordination, not only across sectors (horizontally) but also among the Federal Government, provinces, districts., and communities. Only with strong coordination, based on the right institutional arrangements and legal framework will the country be able integrate efforts from communities to the whole country in a nested approach and with the support and promotion of environmental and social safeguards.
The Strategic Framework for REDD+ in Pakistan underpins the importance of strong legal, policy and Intuitional systems In Pakistan, that can contribute towards the vision and strategics objectives and the roadmap for implementation. The framework is steered by the Guiding principles that need to he inculcated into the instruments related to all actions related to forestry and REDD+ in the country to trove towards the national vision. To take the framework towards a more operational level, the next section will discuss the Strategy Options, which identifies the pathway toward possible decisions towards the objectives.