WATERSHED (CATCHMENTS /DRAINAGE BASIN):
“It is a landmass, which drains into a stream system, circumscribed by a boundary technically known as divide, and having an outlet which is to be considered as measuring point or mouth of the stream system.”
J.E Reader- Roizsch defines watershed in his lectures delivered.
“Watershed is a land body which drains into a stream system, it is delineated by a circumscribing boundary called divide and has an outlet which is either the mouth of the stream or designated point of interest.”
It consists of the development processing, storage, and transportation of water as raw material for agriculture, industrial, recreational and domestic uses.
Water management is mainly concerned with irrigation, supplies, water for sanitary use and hydroelectric power etc.
“It is the management of the natural resources of a watershed or drainage basin primarily for the production and protection of water supplies and w-shed resources, including the control of erosion and floods, and the protection of aesthetic values associated with water.” (LoF) OR;
Use, regulation and treatment of water and land resources of a watershed to accomplish certain objectives ie
- Maintain and increase water yield
- Maintain and improve water quality
- Regulate the timing of streamflow
- Control flood
- Control soil erosion
OBJECTIVES OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT:
- Quality of water: To ensure of water according to needs.
- Quantity of water: Improve the quality of water by cleaning water and reducing erosion.
- Distribution of water: Distribute water according to the requirements of the area through dams, canals, irrigation channels.
PRINCIPLES OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT:-
- A better understanding of the interrelations between vegetation types especially forest, and all hydrologic processes.
- The development of effective methods for normalization and improvement of the water yield in areas where the vegetation-soil water system has been not proper.
- The development of methods for early recognition of disturbances in the hydro system of a land area.
- Development of effective methods for the protection, conservation, and management of watersheds with the aim of sustaining adequate hydrologic functioning and preventing adverse effects of land use on downstream areas.
- Development of additional techniques for better utilization of water resources.
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