Forest types may be defined as:-
“Unit of vegetation which possesses broad characteristics in physiognomy and structure sufficiently pronounced to permit of its different from other such units”.
Important Note: The Spellings of Botanical Names of Species need careful consideration. To check any correct spelling, just type it in google and you will see the correct spellings in Google Suggestions.
Temperature is a very important factor of climate in relation to forest types and it can be related to latitude giving a rough differentiation into four zones:-
i. TROPICAL:- Very hot and winterless
ii. SUB-TROPICAL:- Hot with cool winter
iii. TEMPERATE: – Warm summer and a pronounced winter.
iv. ARTIC: – Short summer and long winter.
On the basis of temperature data Pakistan can be divided into the following zones:-
TEMPERATURE ZONES OF PAKISTAN:
M.A. JANUARY TEMPERATURE
OVER 75 F
Over 60 f
None no frost
DEFINITE BUT NOT SEVER, FROST RARE
PRONOUNCED WITH FROST SOME SNOW
UNDER 50 F
UNDER 30 F
SEVERE WITH MUCH SNOW
CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST TYPES:-
The possible bases for classification put forward by FOSBERG 1958 are least seven viz;
It is ordinarily taken to include characters such as Evergreen or Deciduous habit and such structural or functional features as are associated with very dry (XEROMORPJIC) or very wet (HYDROMORPHIC) sites.
It means three factors;
Stratification indicates single storey, two storey or three storey forests.
Dimension means classification according to height and diameter of trees.
Spacing stands for dense forest and open forest.
Common morphological characters of species occurring together with some being evidently related to site conditions e.g.
Lifeform, Buttressing, Bark Form, Leaf size, and Cauliflory.
This basis as most objective and definite. But apart from difficulties of identification, it observes the relationships between the vegetation of different floristics region.
However, floristic characters are useful for designation of subordinate units within a type and are often used for the ultimate units of classification.
It deals with the plant succession. This means a change of vegetation from unstable to stable form with a change of soil and climate even when an equilibrium appears to have been reached, it only applies to the community as a whole. Changes occur due to the soil, climate and climax types i.e.
Pioneer types, Seral types, Sub-climax and climax types.
The climax type may be Edaphic, climax, (Men and animals action), pyric climax (due to fire).
Climate and soil moisture are part of nearly all classifications no classification has yet been put forward based solely on habitat factors.
The moisture of the soil and reaction between it and the vegetation it supports obviously play an important role e.g.
Physiography is patently important in the occurrence and distribution of forest types.
The vegetation is the best and usually the only obtainable indication of the climate.
The history of a site and vegetation on it are often of the present importance in determining its resent condition and potentialities.
DANSEREAUI, 1951 have developed method “collection of data for classification” recording the features of vegetation. These of such methods facilities comparisons and mapping.
In 1964 SKS introduced Qualitative methods of studying Forest Types of Pakistan. History tells us the status of forests on any particular sites e.g.
i. In Attock, there were thick Olea cuspidate and Acacia modesta forests but there are no such Forests except Prosopis and Acacia modesta.
ii. In Kashmir, there was Oak Forest but now there is Chir pine.
WHY IS CLASSIFICATION NECESSARY?
NEED FOR CLASSIFICATION
WHY ARE FORESTS CLASSIFIED?
Classification of vegetation is important for the following needs and reasons;
1. It is an aid to recognize soil type.
2. It helps in the choice of species for afforestation.
3. It is an aid to recognize Climatic conditions.
4. It facilitates the selection of Silvicultural systems.
5. It is easy for controlling and administrating the Forest area for protection and production.
6. It facilitates the Watershed Management.
7. It helps us to understand the Evolutionary trend.
8. We should be able to correlate the vegetation with climate.
9. It facilitates the selection of Silvicultural operations.
FOREST TYPES OF PAKISTAN:-
1. Tropical Littoral and Swamp Forest (Mangrove Forest).
2. Tropical Thorn Forest.
3. Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest.
4. Sub-Tropical Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forest.
5. Sub-Tropical pine forest.
6. Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest.
7. Himalayan Dry Temperate Forest.
8. Sub-Alpine Forest.
9. Alpine Scrub Forest.
10. Riverain Forest.
11. Irrigated plantations
12. Linear Plantations
i. Roadside Plantations.
ii. Railway track Plantations.
iii. Canalside Plantations.
I. TROPICAL THORN FOREST:-
1) Forests in which thorny usually HARDWOOD species predominate.
2) Trees have short bole and low branching crowns and usually, height is up to 20-30 feet.
3) The leaves are small except Salvadora and caloptropis.
4) There is a lower story of smaller trees and large shrubs.
5) Heavy browsing, especially by Goat and Camel, is universal.
6) Cutting of trees for fuelwood has reduced the vegetation to scrub form with scattered lopped trees.
7) Regeneration by root suckers is common.
1) Mean annual temperature varies from 750F to 800F.
2) Mean annual rainfall is from 30″ down to 5″ with variation from year to year.
3) Even this small quantity tends to come in the form of heavy showers and most of it lost as surface run-off.
4) Forest occurs as far south as sakrand.
1) The species belong to “XEROPHYTE FAMILY” which survive in the shortage of water in desert regions
2) They produce very deep and extensive roots they penetrate in the soil up great distance and get some moist in the dry seasons
3) In the dry season, they shed their leaves for reducing the water losses.
SOME SPECIES OF THE XEROPHYTE:-
1) Acacia nilotica
2) Zizyphus mauratina
3) Zizyphus nummularia
4) Tamrix aphylla
5) Tamrix articulate
6) Prosopis spicigera
7) Prosopis cineraria
8) Salvadora oleoides
9) Acacia modesta
10) Acacia Senegal
11) Capparis aphylla (shrub)
12) Tecoma undulate
13) Acacia leucophlea
14) Acacia leucophlea
15) Calatropis Spp.
16) Spicara Spp.
SAND DUNAL TRACTS ARE OVERGROWTH BY SPECIES (shrubs):-
PREVALENT GRASSES ARE:-
1) The Tropical Thorn forests of Pakistan are located in the desert areas 90 percent plants of Punjab and Sindh are arid or semi-arid and having tropical thorn forests
2) These forests in the deserts of:
3) Thal deserts
4) Cholistan Nara desert
5) Thapparker desert Kharan deserts are found
THE THAL DESERT
Present between the planes of river Indus and river Jehlam this area is known is Sindh sagar doab
Areas included are:
5) Sands are found everywhere
6) Rainfall is drastically low
7) Dust storms are frequent
8) A huge percentage of this area has been irrigated with canal water but still a vast area is barren land
THE CHOLISTAN DESERT
Found along the southern border area of Bahawalnagar
It is the part of Rajistan district which is situated adjacent to it in India
Thorny bushes and scattered dunes can be seen everywhere
THE NARA DESERT
The southern border area of Khanpur is Sindh is having a desert region known as Nara
The driest part of Pakistan
Sand dunes and thorny bushes scattered everywhere
THE THARPARKER DESERT
Located at the border area of Mirpurkhas and sanshar
Is also the part of Rajistan desert in India.
Categorized as the driest part of Pakistan
The problem of salinity is at peak
Huge sand dunes and thorny bushes nothing can be seen there
Nomads living 22000 families Rs 3per cattle per annum for grazing known “TIRNI”
THE KHARAN DESERT
Located in the province of Balochistan
Kharan desert is very near to the Afghan border so many afghan along with their sheep, goats, cattle enter in these areas
A severe shortage of rainfall in barren land under climatic conditions are very severe
Faced with droughts
Having severed and long summer
No irrigation facilities
Very low percentage of the total area is under management i.e. only 3.5%
These forests are managed under Clear felling silvicultural system
The whole of the trees in the specified block for felling and regeneration are felled in one installment and is followed by obtaining natural or artificial regeneration
Nomads should be controlled
Sand dunes stabilization is a must
II. TROPICAL DRY DECIDUOUS FORESTS:-
1) An open rather low forest
2) Composed almost entirely of deciduous trees and a few trees of the thorn forest type with a predominantly deciduous shrub layer
3) There is no extensive occurrence of forests in Pakistan
4) The forest is subjected to repeated ground fires
5) Grazing and browsing are heavy, close to habitation
6) The forest adjoins the dry subtropical and also the subtropical pine forest
1) Elevation 1500_3000 foothills
2) The MAT is about 70F
3) MA Rainfall is between 20_40 inches
4) The forest is borne on sandstone, shale, and limestone
5) The forest occurs at suitable elevation merging Downwards with the tropical thorn forest and Upward with the subtropical Pine forest
6) Precipitation receive in July and August and again in the January and February but erratic
7) There is a long period of drought
1) Scrub forests of Pabbi hills (KPK)
2) Kharian (Gujrat)
3) Margalla hills (Islamabad)
4) Kalachitta (Attock) hills
5) Also located in patches on small hills in KPK, AJK and Balochistan==Quetta. Kalat division
7) Lower slopes of Himalaya
8) Salt range
9) Suleman range
10) Hazara hills
1) Acacia modesta and Olea cuspidate are the dominant trees of this type of forest
2) Olea ferruginea
3) Ziziphus mauritiana
III. DRY SUB-TROPICAL BROAD-LEAVED FOREST:
1. Commonly these are known as scrub forest
2. These scrub forest occur at height of 1500 to 3000 feet
3. Sub-humid, subtropical climate
4. The terrains of these forests are hilly
5. The trees and shrubs are mostly thorny and evergreen but some are not thorny e.g.
6. Olea cuspidate
7. Pome granata
8. They produce small timber, fuelwood, and fodder, roof, Handicraft, Handles Tools and Rural cots
9. Conspicuous erosion, Gullies and deep ravines.
1. M.A.T is 700 up to 800F with high summer temperature reaching 110F or even more than marked cold season
2. Forest is usual but may occur
3. The annual rainfall is about 35″ or less
4. Short monsoon period of only three months.
- Soil==> Recent deposit at the foothills with light sandy soil.
1. Acacia modesta
2. Acacia catechu
3. Bauhinia verigata
4. Cacia fistula
5. Bombox ceiba
6. Zizypus mauritiana
7. Sterculia villosa
8. Terminalia beterica
9. Flecourtia indica
10. Punica granatum
11. Ficus carica
12. Dalbergia sissoo
14. Dondonea viscosa
1. Rawalpindi foothills
2. Murree= Kuhuta hills
3. Jhelum valley
4. Outer Mangla hills
5. Lehtar and Nurpur Shahan
IV. SUB-TROPICAL CHIR PINE FORESTS
SUB-TROPICAL CHIR FORESTS
1. Open inflammable pine forests are evergreen
2. There is heavy Neel fall in the may
3. Chir forests occupy generally between 3000-5500 feet
4. The forest occurs on slopes of rocky mountains, hence its soils is well drained and often dry
5. The tree are mostly needle heaving high rate of transpiration
6. Some broad-leaved species are also associated
7. Chir from the top major parts of the top canopy
8. It normally attains the height of 120 feet, heaving girth of 7-8 feet
9. Pine canopy has an even-aged cover
10. Usually catch fire in summer
11. In depression, evergreen Quercus incana (oak) and some deciduous plants grow
12. Shrubs are few
13. Herba and greenness occur in monsoon
1. Mean annual temperature lies between 600 F – 700F
2. Rainfall varying 30-50 mainly derived from the southwestern monsoon, falling in July and August but there is appreciable spring falling as well
3. Sandstone and limestone are abundant in soil
4. There is small overlap with Pinus wallichiana at the upper limit
1. Chir form the major canopy i.e. Pinus roxburgii
2. Quercus incana
3. Pyrus pashia
4. Pistacia integrima
5. Lyonia ovali
6. Rhododenron arboretum
7. Zyzygium cummini
8. Xylosoma longifolium
9. Quercus glauca
10. Mallotus philippinesis
11. Ficus spp
12. Olea cuspidate
13. Grevea oppositifolia
SHRUBS GROWTH ARE:
1. Myrsine Africana
7. Wood fordia
8. Berberis lysium
Ø Hetropogon contortous
PROBLEMS IN THESE FORESTS:
1. Summer heavy fire
2. Uncontrolled continuous grazing/browsing
3. Excessive fuelwood collection
4. Shifting cultivation
9. Dir lower
11. Lower hills of Murree and Kahuta
12. Valley of Azad Jammu Kashmir
13. Gadoon Mardan District
1. PRODUCTIVE ROLE
Ø Timber, fuelwood, fodder
2. ENVIRONMENTAL ROLE
Ø Produce oxygen
Ø Sink CO2
Ø Making environment fresh and healthy
Ø Reduce global warming
3. PROTECTIVE ROLE
Ø Soil and water conservation
4. STRATEGICAL ROLE
Ø Forest belt stretched in A.J.K, Army commandos hide in it and have a strict eye on an enemy army
Ø Aesthetic role
§ It extends along the Himalayas between the chir pine forests and alpine forests
§ It is divided into two types
i. Himalayan Moist temperate forests
ii. Himalayan Dry temperate forests
V. HIMALAYAN MOIST TEMPERATE FOREST
CHARACTERISTICS AND LOCALITY FOREST
1. It is found on hills at an altitude between 4500 to 10,000 feet.
2. It is coniferous forests with tree varying from 100 to 150 feet in height.
3. The mat is 560F.
4. M.A. rainfall in 57 inches.
5. Precipitation is derived from the south-west monsoon (July – September) while winter rainfall is due to northwestern disturbance. Mostly the winter precipitation is in the form of snow.
Ø These forests are the Pakistan’s most important watersheds of Mangla and Tarbela lakes.
6. The soil is loamy and acidic due to being humus rich.
7. Conifers mostly occur on the slopes and tend to avoid hot southern exposures. Growth rate is satisfactory.
8. Moist depression, steep cool slopes and the flatter deep soil carry deciduous broadleaved species.
9. All species are capable of attaining considerable girth of 4.5 meter or more.
10. Winters are long and severely cold. Summers are short.
11. Snow and hail storms during winters are common.
12. The forest vegetation is dense.
* Kail and deodar are typical dominant coniferous trees. The chief coniferous species in Moist Temperate Forests are:-
1. Pinus wallichina
2. Cedrus deodara
3. Picea smithiana
4. Abies pindrow
5. Taxus bacata
* Broadleaved species are:
1. Quercus incana
2. Quercus dilatata
3. Quercus semicarpifolia
4. Quercus ilex
5. Juglans regia (Walnut)
6. Acer caesium (Maple)
7. Aesculus indica (Horse Chestnut)
8. Populous ciliata
9. Salix babylonica
10. Alnus nitida
11. Ulmus wallichina
12. Pyrus pPashia
13. Pyrus malus
14. Pyrus communis
15. Farxinuls Spp.
16. Prunus padus
* Shrubs => Common shrubs are:
1. Berberis lysium
2. Indigofera spp.
3. Viburnum spp.
4. Rubus spp.
5. Rhododendron arboreum
2. Hedera Nepalensis.
* Ferns, on the moist soil and rocks.
DISTRIBUTION/ LOCATIONS/ AREAS:
These forests occur in:
1. Tehsil Murree.
2. Abbottabad District.
3. Mansehra District.
4. Gallies e.g. Ayubia.
5. Kaghan valley.
6. Swat District.
7. Dir-Upper District.
8. A.J.K => Leepa Valley
11. Shangla District => Alpuri Tehsil
12. Tribal Areas (FATA)
VI. THE HIMALAYAN DRY TEMPERATE FORESTS:
1. These are found in mountain ranges beyond the effective reach of the summer monsoon.
2. Elevation ranging from 5000 to 10,000 feet extending to 11,000 on southerly aspect.
3. The foliage is grayish and small-leaved aromatic shrubs predominant notably:
i. Artemisia spp.
ii. Rosa spp.
iii. Ephedra is highly aromatic.
iv. Caragana spp.
v. Prunus spp.
4. Receive winter precipitation in the form of rain and snow.
5. Mean annual temperature is 600F or 60C to 160C.
6. The mean annual rainfall varies from 13 to 20 inches.
7. The depth of snowfall lays between 1.5 to 6.2 meter.
8. The summers are mild and short.
9. Winters are long and severely cold. Snow and hail storms are common.
10. Rock avalanches and snow slides are common occurrence.
Ø These forests are coniferous forests.
Ø The vegetation of this forests is if small to medium height predominately on drier sites.
Ø The ground vegetation of this forest is also found there in aromatic fashion.
* Species are:
1. Cedrus deodara
2. Pinus geradiana
3. Juniperous macropoda (pencil juniper)
4. Juniperous excelsa
5. Pinus wallichina
6. Picea smithana
7. Quercus ilex
8. Fraxinus spp.
9. Acer spp.
* The common shrubs are:
1. Artimisia spp.
2. Aphedra spp.
3. Astralgus spp.
4. Berberies Iysium
5. Punica spp.
6. Rosa spp.
7. Prunus spp.
8. Daphne spp.
9. Lunicera spp.
These dry temperate forests are found in locations/ areas:
2. Kaghan Valley
3. Nelum valley (A.J.K)
7. Zhob and district Lora Lai
9. Waziristan (FATA)
10. Diamer – Northern Areas
VII. SUB-ALPINE FORESTS:
1. It occurs between 3350 – 3800 meters
Throughout the Himalayas from about 11,000 feet to the timber limit or tree limit.
2. M.A.T is 100C or below 00C for 5 to 6 months. Maximum temperature does not exceed than 15.60C.
3. Rainfall ranges between 660mm and 9mm.
4. Snowfall is of greater importance for which a depth of 2 meter and over.
5. Evergreen conifers.
6. The conifers rarely exceed 8 meter in height and broadleaved trees reach about 9 meter.
7. There is a spring flush of herbaceous flowers.
1. Abies spectabilis (High-level form) and Betula utilis are the typical tree species.
2. High-levell Pinus Wallichina may occur on landslips or abandoned clearings.
3. Salix and Pyrus in depressions.
(B) Tall shrubs
1. Virurnum and Salix.
2. Evergreen Dwarf Junipers are often abundant communis.
3. Rhododendron Anthopogon.
3. Sorbus Trianshanica.
(D) Spring Herbaceous Flowers:
DISTRIBUTIONS/ LOCATION/ AREAS:
1. Naltar valley – Gilgit at 12000 feet
2. Kaghan valley – Hazara
3. Thajwas, sonamarg => Kashmir
VIII. ALPINE SCRUB:
1. The type ascends normally to 150 meters or more above the sub-alpine forests (About 500 feet or more).
2. Climate must be similar but more severe than in sub-alpine forests.
3. Shrubs formation often forming a quite dense cover 0.6 to 1.8 meter high. Mostly deciduous and small leaves.
4. The stems are generally flexible and adaptive to snow pressure.
5. Due to heavy grazing and browsing a scrub formation in summer.
6. Heavy snowfall is the predominant climatic factor.
7. Heaving alpine pastures/ Meadows.
(A) The characteristics genera are:
1. Salix spp.
4. Occasionally Junipers dwarf Rhodendron or Ephedra.
(B) Grasses includes:
1. Poageus spp.
2. Draba Trineriva.
3. Polygonum Affine.
4. Saxifrage Sibirica
1. Kashmir (A.J.K) => Dras, Aparwat, Pirpanjal (12000 to 12500 ft).
5. Gilgit => Astor valley
6. Hazara Division.
MOIST ALPINE PASTURE
1. Appear natural and extended by heavy summer grazing and are continuous with those of the Sub-Alpine Zone.
2. Shorter growing season.
3. The meallows carry a fairly sward of grasses and other herbs.
iii. Fartillar gud
IX. RIVERAIN, RIPARIAN, BELA OR INUNDATION FORESTS:
1. These forests are located in the floodplains of major rivers of Pakistan.
2. These forests grow on river banks and land subject to periodical overflow to percolate from rivers.
3. The width of the flooded belt varies from 5 to 10 miles.
4. It is an important serial stage of tropical thorn forest type.
5. Proper management and existence of these forests depends upon on a regular inundation and recharging of sub-soil water.
6. Erosion and deposition are common features => erosion strips.
7. Water is available at shallow depth.
8. Flood water spills over the river banks. The river begins to rise in May and keeps rising up to the end of September.
9. These are restricted on both sides of the river by two continuous earthen embankments (Bunds).
Ø In these Bunds, Gates are provided.
Ø The area outside the Bunds is called inland while the area inside is termed riverain.
10. Erosion and deposition are constantly in progress. It is estimated that nearly 1/15th of the total area between the banks is eroded and redeposited annually which is known as erosion strips.
It is an elongated strip of land which is likely to be eroded in the current year.
1. The vegetation is generally dense and tall.
1. Climate is hot throughout the year.
2. The soil is deep and loamy.
3. Climate is sub-tropical arid.
4. The soil is moist, deep, sandy/silty alluvial.
1. These forests cover about 7% of total forests area of the country.
2. These forests cover an area of almost 3,04,200 hectare in Sindh and Punjab.
3. Ding forest, Sukkur, Sindh.
4. Kabrani forests, Hyderabad Sindh.
5. Riverian tract of the Indus between Muzaffargarh and Hyderabad.
a) Flora of Riverian Forests of Punjab:
1. Dalbergia sissoo.
2. Morus alba.
3. Prosopis cineraria.
4. Cannabis sativa.
b) Flora of Riverian Forest of Sindh:
1. Acacia nilotica
2. Prosopis spicigera
3. Populous euphratica
4. Tamarix aphylla
5. Tamarix articula
6. Salvadora oledides
7. Zizyphus muratiana
8. Capparis decidua (kareer)
1. Tamarix Dioca.
2. Tamarix Troup
1. Saccharum Munja (Clumps)
RIVERIAN FOREST IN PUNJAB SUCCESSION:
- The Riparian forest of Punjab is inhabited by:
i. Dalbergia sissoo
ii. Acacia nilotica
iii. Populous euphratica
- As we move away from the rivers these trees gradually disappear and replaced by:
i. Tamarix dioca
ii. Prosopis spicigera
iii. Salvadora oledides
- Further away the leafless Cappris aphylla appears.
- Presently tree becomes sparse and bush like and the landscape gradually merges into Desert.
RIVERIAN FOREST, HYDERABAD, SINDH:
i. The first stage on new alluvium is Saccharum spontaneum with Erianthus munja.
ii. This is followed by:
a) Tamarix dioca
b) Tamarix troup
c) Acacia nilotica
iii. This stage is finally succeeded by:
a) Prosopis spicigera
b) Salvadora oleodies
c) Capparis decidua
OBJECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF RIVERIAN FORESTS:
Production of timber, fuelwood, and Charcoal.
These forests are managed under “CLEAR FELLING SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM” accompanied with artificial seeding and regeneration from root-suckers or root-shoot cuttings.
REGENERATION OF RIVERIAN FORESTS:
(a) In Punjab
(b) In Sindh
REGENERATION IN PUNJAB:
1. Shisham is the principal species in the Riverian forest of Punjab.
2. Usually, the groundwater is available near the surface.
3. Natural regeneration from root-suckers supplemented by artificial planting blanks stable areas are planted under well known “BELA PLANTING TECHNIQUES” where the water table is high.
i. Planting of Shisham stumps at 5×5 meter to 3×3 meter spacing in boat-shaped pits is planted with hand watering from Kacha wells dug in the centre of each 0.4-hectare plot.
ii. Rotation is fixed for 60 years.
iii. Thinning are done at an interval of 5-6 years up to the age of 30 years and after that thinning cycle is 10 years in good block Bela plantation.
REGENERATION OF RIVERAIN FORESTS IN SINDH:
1. The main species in Sindh Reverain forests is Acacia nilotica.
2. Natural Regeneration is supplement by artificial regeneration by broadcasting seeds of Acacia nilotica during the rainy season or in receding flood water.
3. This manual broadcasting of seeds is made through boats by the workers of the forest department with help aerial sowing by the following methods:-
i. Pre-Abkalani Sowing
ii. Mid-Abkalani Sowing
iii. Post-Abkalani Sowing
Ø When less quantity of water is expected to be available
Ø Sowing is done before floodwater engulfs the area
Ø Flood water is expected to remain for a longer period.
Ø Strips of 20Km width are marked.
Ø When flood waters are receding boats are used to spread out the seed form the boats.
Ø Keeping the boat at the centre of the strip the seeds are thrown on either side.
Ø Ariel sowing is also done.
Ø In those areas where the flood water has left the area completely.
Ø Particular areas which are categorized as “KHAUF” area.
Ø The width of this belt normally varies from 5 to 10 Km.
Ø It is a word of local language means “FEAR” which is supposed to be eroded in coming rainy season by river Indus due to turbulent flow. Here the river flows like a wild Elephant.
Ø The width of this belt normally varies from 5 to 10 Km.
Ø The government trickily advised the people living in these regions along with the river banks to shift their residences from ‘KHAUF’ areas to avoid damages not only to their valuables but also their lives.
PROBLEMS IN RIVERAIN FORESTS:
The Riverain forests of Pakistan, in general, those in Sindh has particularly little future due to facing the following problem:
Ø Due to the construction of Tarbela dam and a large number of barrages on river Indus and its tributaries have deprived the riverain forests of Sindh for their regular annual flood watering.
Ø At present these forests receive floodwater once in a while whenever unusually continuous heavy rains are received in their northern catchments.
Ø The presences of a large number of dacoits and outlaws in their forests have brought down forest management to low and stand still level.
Ø Timber mafia has also serious threats to the survival of these forests.
Ø The ruthless cutting of trees for fuelwood, due to lack of awareness.
X. IRRIGATED PLANTATIONS:
1. These forests are outcome of human efforts on sub-marginal lands where irrigation water could be made available.
2. These irrigated plantations were created after clearing 23,000,000 acres of the tropical thorn forests.
3. Irrigated plantation was first started in 1866, 4860 hectares.
4. These plantations are raised over the plains of Pakistan primarily in Punjab and Sindh.
5. Size of such plantations varies from just 200 hectares to 800 hectares.
6. An irrigated plantation depends upon artificial substance from irrigational canals.
7. Man-made forests were established for providing timber, fuelwood for railways, population and sports good.
8. The man-made forests of Punjab alone cover about 3,67,200 acres of land and constitute about 29% of the total forest area of the province.
1. The climate of this plantation in plains is extremely dry and hot.
2. The max temp during summer rises to 1200F.
3. M.A. rainfall is below 10″.
4. Hot, dry, dust-laden winds are a common feature during summer.
5. The soil varies from shifting sand dunes to heavy clay.
6. Kanker pans occur in places, the pH is always well over 7 and the soils are mostly saline often with high sodium content especially in the Bahawalpur and Ghulam Muhammad Barrage areas.
7. The water table remains as follows:
Name of Plantation
Depth of Ground Water Table When Plantation Was Started
Depth of Present ground Water Table
50’ – 57’ ft (1889)
56’ – ft (1913)
26 – 29 ft
50 – 60 ft (1908)
7 – 125 ft
30 ft (1979)
8. In Daphar plantation waterlogged conditions have developed.
9. Inmost plantations irrigation water is available from April to May to the Middle of October.
10. The depth of irrigation requires 9″ deep trenches.
11. The first irrigation to 1foot delta requiring 12 cusecs per acre for an hour should be given to the entire plantation.
12. 12 cusecs is the minimum discharge required for raising 1000 acre of Shisham plantation. This corresponds to about 50″ of rainfall.
i. Dalbergia sissoo
ii. Acacia nilotica
iii. Morus alba
iv. Populus deltoides
v. Bombox ceiba
vi. Melia azedarach
vii. Azidrachta indica
viii. Leeucaena leucdephala
ix. Sesbbania sesbans
x. Eucalyptus camaldulensis
xi. Populous euramericiana
xii. Ailanthus excelsa/Altisima
xiii. Albizzia lebbek
xiv. Cedrela toona
1. Changa Manga national park
2. Gatwala national park
3. Lal Sohra national park
PROBLEMS/ HURDLES OF IRRIGATED PLANTATIONS:
1. Lack of canal water => inadequate water
2. Depictive irrigation system
3. Deposition of silt in channels, reduced water flow and continuous lost to seepage and evaporation.
4. Lack of financial resources i.e. fund => insufficient funds.
5. Deteriorated site conditions due to waterlogging and alkalinity => semi-productive sites.
6. Improper selections of species.
7. Gender mismanagement.
8. The water budgets for irrigated plantations have been erratic and insufficient for normal tree growth.
9. Political interference.
10. The future of these plantations is dark in the 21st Century if managed in the present way.
11. An economic analysis of Chichawatni irrigated tree plantation shows that the total cost of growing trees was Rs. 5456 per Acre and the total income received was Rs. 1659 per acre which made pure high timber forestry an unproductive enterprise.
12. Similar results have been concluded in an economic analysis of kamalia irrigated tree plantation.
13. The Punjab forest department is spending three times more (Rs. 120.6 million) than its earnings to maintain the resources of the meager forest and to pay staff salaries.
14. The productivity is on decline and minus internal rate of return and minus net present value.
15. High degree of theft, illicit grazing and browsing.
16. Cattle trample irrigation channels and young trees.
17. People cut and damage young timber trees for firewood and steal valuable timber.
18. Inability of local staff to act promptly at critical situation.
19. Scattered small 300 irrigated plantations including Chak (village) plantations do not make economic units for intensive management.
20. There is no justification to continue keeping such irrigated forest plantations and riverain forests with minus internal rate of return and minus net present value.
IMPROVEMENT / DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATED PLANTATIONS:
1. The Justification to keep such plantations would be for
(a) Parks and recreation
(b) Growing special purpose wood for the production of industrial product
(c) Defense needs
2. Farm forestry/agroforestry should be considered as agroforestry give almost 200 to 300 percent return
3. Call for a complete overhaul of irrigation system
4. Reclaiming saline / water logged soils by planting suitable species
5. Tube wells should be installed
6. Land should be leveled
7. Encouraging active participation of local small farmers in the early stage
8. The scattered small irrigation including Chak plantation should be consolidated
9. The planting of valuable as well as fast-growing species
(a) Eucalyptus camaldulensis
(b) Populous deltoid
(c) Bombax ceiba
On 5 – 6 to 12 years rotation can make these forest high profitable
It is conservatively estimated that these private irrigation plantations can make form Rs. 20,000 to 50,000 per acre per annum without pail
10. Broadening and scattering marketing system to encourage large number of timber buyer to ensure healthy competition
11. Inspiring dynamism and competence in the field staff / formation
12. Restructuring the whole management system on economic foundation.
TROPICAL TIDAL SWAMP FORESTS
1. Mangrove forests grown inter-tidal coastlines, meaning every 24 hours, they are inundated by sea water.
2. The trees have high salt tolerance, Fosses aerial Roots to collect-oxygen.
3. Live in the harsh and unpredictable interference between Land and Sea.
4. Vivipary is usual.
5. Moreover less dense evergreen Forests.
6. Very low average height, often only 2-3 meter.
7. The best patches reach 6-7 height.
8. Mangroves have specially adapted Aerial and Salt filtering Roots and salt existing leaves that enable them to occupy the saline wetlands where other plant cannot survive.
9. The accessible parts are much grazed and topped for fodder and firewood.
10. Lenticels are present on the stem and PNEUMATOPEHORES on the Roots to make the desired oxygen for the growth of mangrove Forests being growing in salty sea water.
11. The Mangrove Forests litter consisting mainly of fallen leaves and branches provide Nutrients for marine Environment and nursery ground for Juvenile Fish, Crabs, Shrimps and mollusks.
12. Mangrove forest are also prime nesting and migratory sites for hundreds of birds and animals species.
13. Mangroves are also useful in treating effluent as the plant absorb excess nitrates and phosphates thereby preventing contaminated of nearshore waters.
14. Mangroves are principal coastal features of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Climates.
15. Mangrove are currently characterised as on open Ecosystem.
16. The Coastal track in Pakistan carries mangrove forests in varying densities of qualities.
1. Mangrove soils are also usually waterlogged and poorly oxygenated.
2. The soft, silty and shall soils provide very little support for a plant to establish itself.
3. They consist mainly of limestone and clay.
4. The soil of the mangrove islands is Alluvium with plenty of clay derived from land drainages and River discharge. It is reach is slats like sodium chloride, sodium carbonate and nitrates with some calcium.
5. The muddy clayey soil is very poor in other mineral substances.
6. The tidal action of sea causes erosion on one side of the creek and Accretion on the other.
7. The soils generally are silty clays, silty clay loams, and very fine sandy loams and usually dark grayish brown, greyish brown or brown.
8. The soils are sticky to very sticky when WET, firm to very firm when moist and hard to very hard when DRY.
9. The pH ranges from 8 to 8.2 and the organic matter content is less then one percent.
10. The entire coastal area of Sindh is included in the warm monsoon climatic region.
11. Average rainfall is 221.2 mm falls in Monsoon season from April to September.
12. January is a cooler month with minimum temperature of 9.50c.
13. Humidity is an important factor in Coastal Region. It is generally higher in morning then in the afternoon.
14. The wind is another important factor of Coastal Region. The speed increases during the day from morning to evening.
15. Salinity of sea water is Relatively high due to Arid climate and less influence of River water.e.g.
i. Chin Creek 3.6% observed in July, 1981.
ii. Korangi Creek 3.6% observed in October, 1985.
iii. Ket Bunder 4.3% observed in July, 1981.
iv. Shah Bunder 3-3.60% observed in October, 1985.
1. The mangrove forests 2,57,500 hectares are found in Pakistan, out of which 6,93,032 Acres are in Sindh. They are protected forests having no right.
2. Pakistan is the Seventh largest mangrove forest in the world.
3. The Indus deltic swamp forests are situated:
i. From Korngi to chan creek, near Keti Bunder.
ii. From mal to seer creek, touching the Indian Border in the Runn of Kuch.
4. Coast of Gawadar
1. Mangroves are considered a Tidal swamp forests by Ecologists and are comparable TROPICAL RAIN Forests on small scale.
2. They are natural forests propagated by PROPAGULES which are dispersed over the area of Islands accessible to Tidal water.
3. There are about 30 species of true mangrove trees and approximately 60 species of associated mangrove plants worldwide.
4. In Indus delta, so far only Eight species have been reported listed below:-
i. Arecinnia marina
ii. Rhizophora mucronata
iii. Ceropes tagal
iv. Bruguiera conjugate
v. Ceriops roxburghiana
vi. Rhiozophara apiculata
vii. Aegiceras cerinculata
viii. Sonneratia caseolarix
1. Mangrove Forests of Sindh was brought under the management, working plan by Mr. S.A. Khan in the year 1961.
2. All Forests were divided into three working circles namely:-
i. Selection-cum Improvement working circle
ii. Afforestation working circle
iii. Lopping, Grazing, and Browsing working circle’
3. W.P. 1985-86 to 2004-05:- (M.Tahir Qureshi).
i. No intensive management of coastal forests is prescribed.
ii. No Regular fellings would be carried out.
iii. No particular system of working is prescribed in this plan. Only Dead, dying and fallen tree world continue to be Removed on permit Royalty system unless the Research work on Avicennia suggests otherwise.
XI: AMENITY PLANTING
(a) Liner Plantations
i. Roadside plantation
ii. Canalside plantation
iii. Railway track plantation
(b) i. City Parks
ii. Air Ports
ii. New Townships
(A) OBJECTIVE OF ROADSIDE PLANTATION
1. To provide shade and protection to the traffics users against scorching heat of the summer, torrential rains of monsoon.
2. Block the dazzling lights of vehicles confronting drivers on opposite direction at night.
3. Reduce crazy notice of the fast-moving traffic.
4. Absorb carbon emitting from vehicular movement.
5. Protect Road surface from drifting sand and dust by reducing soil erosion and extreme exposure to heat and cold in order to prolong highway life and Reduce Maintenance Cost.
6. Accentuate visibility of Road curvatures thus enhancing Road safety.
7. During national emergency helps in concealment of troops deployment and camouflage.
8. Providing habitat for wildlife.
9. Establishment and strengthening the state of Encroachments.
10. Provide relief to the drivers and passengers by having developed a severe and pleasant environment through Raising ornamental and shade trees of Aesthetic value.
11. Enhance the Forest Resource base of the country by promoting vegetation cover.
12. Combating global warming by reducing greenhouse effects.
13. Sometimes provide income to the state.
Ø The choice of species is made by the Ecological zones and availability of water. The following Criteria should be used in making the selection:-
1. The use of thorny trees should be avoided as they are liable to damage car, cycle and feet of pedestrians.
2. The planting of fruit trees is not recommended on the high way roadside. Fruit trees need lot of attention. The fallen trees are conducive to suiting of fast traffic. Fruit trees also attract urchins who are likely to be run by fact traffic. Similarly for wild and domestic animals.
3. It should have a moderately fast rate of growth trees.
4. It should be wind firm and its limbs should not unduly liable to breakage by wind.
5. It should preferably be of economic importance.
6. Where space permits the trees should have a spreading shady crown where space is limited, trees of more pyramidal or columnar form are preferable and cultivars.
7. Planning should be avoided in the following situations:-
i. Inside of the curves and near crossroads.
ii. Failure chances in extremely Arid, very saline and waterlogged areas, be avoided.
iii. To obscure a pleasant view from the Roadside.
iv. Failure near Gas pipelines as they frequently leak.
8. Length of plantation is usually given in Avenue Kilometer.
9. To plant pure avenues of a single species for considerable length.
10. The extension of single or double line avenues at interval of a kilometer in the form of a wider plot may be recommended to provide resting spots and camping places, shady & branchy trees most suitable (Mango).
11. The vicinity of dangerous curves or crossroads can be indicated to traffic by planting white-stemmed trees e.g. Albizia procure or Terminalia arjuna.
(C) SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM
1. Regular felling is not done only for Removal of dead, dying, diseased, dry and wind-fallen trees are harvested.
2. However, over nature/enlisted silvicultural thinnings are carried out.
Usually these species are planted:-
1. Dalbergia sissoo
2. Albizzia procora
3. Albizzia lebbek
4. Azadrachta indica
5. Melia azedaracha
6. Morus alba
8. Bauhina verigate
9. Cassia fistula
10. Plantnus orientalis
11. Sterculia alata
13. Polyathia longifolia
14. Cupresus sempervirness
16. Baurina purpurea
18. Poplar spp.
19. Eucalyptus camaldulensis
20. E. Citrodora
21. E. toroliana
22. Magrifera indica
23. Jacarandu spp.
24. Terminalia arjuna
(II) CANALSIDE PLANTATION
1. Growing of trees in strips available along main canals, branches and in avenues along distributaries and minors due to ease of getting water supply.
2. These plantations act as windbreaks.
3. They save canals and adjoining Agricultural fields from the ranges of wind storms.
4. Serve as shade for service roads.
5. Also provide Timber, firewood, and tanbark to the market.
1. Dalbergia sissoo
2. Acacia nilotica
4. Bombox ceiba
5. Moras alba
6. Albizzia lebbek
7. Syzygium cumini
8. Azadirachta indica
9. Eucalyptus spp.
Note: Roadside and Railway tract are almost the same Silvicultural system.
For Correction and Improvements please use the comments section below.
For Correction and Improvements please use the comments section below.
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